Sunday, 2 September 2001

Textile Units Calculations - Conversions


Shafiul/TexUnits.doc  02ix01

Mind Mapping Textile Fiber Yarn Filament FYF Count Units

Everything we do, everything we see, and everywhere we go can be measured in one kind of unit or another.  Measuring in units lets us compare one form with another, and helps us figure out how far away, or how heavy, an object is.  It also tells us how long it takes you to do something.  We can even measure wind!  Read on and find out textile units in perspective.  We are often challenged to reproduce specific sample specimen without even any specific technical information.  The product component parameters of fiber, filament and yarn are critical for

FYF Count Units Multiplication Factors

Count - FYF
To Obtain

Tex
ktex
dtex
mtex
mtex
den (d)
Nm
Ne
Multiply
By
Tex
1
10-3
10
102
106
9
*
**
Kilotex (ktex)
103
1
104
105
109
9000


Decitex (dtex)
10-1
10-4
1
10
105
9´10-1


Millitex (mtex)
10-2
10-5
10
1
104
9´10-2


Microtex (mtex)
10-6
10-9
10-5
10-4
1
9´10-6


Denier (d)
0.111
111.111
1.111
11.111
1.1´105
1


Nm
*





1

Ne
**






1
Formula
g/km
kg/km
deci g/km
mg/km
mg/km
g/9km
km/kg
840yds/lb

* Nm ´ Tex = 1000 (?),  ** Ne ´ Tex = 590.5,  Ne ´ 1.6933 = Nm

Stregth - FYF
To Obtain: Tenacity, Strength, Modulus, Toughness

cN/tex
cN/dtex
g/d
psi
kPa
MPa
GPa

Multiply
By
cN/tex
1
10-3
10
102
106
9
*
**
cN/dtex
103
1
104
105
109
9000


g/d
10-1
10-4
1
10
105
9´10-1


psi
10-2
10-5
10
1
104
9´10-2


kPa
10-6
10-9
10-5
10-4
1
9´10-6


MPa
0.111
111.111
1.111
11.111
1.1´105
1


GPa
*





1


**






1
Formula
g/km
kg/km
deci g/km
mg/km
mg/km
g/9km
km/kg
840yds/lb

g/m = 9000 denier,  gpd = 11.33/r Gpa,  kgf = 9.806 N

Textile Units

Area
m2 = yd2 ´ 0.8361

Bursting Pressure
kN/m2 = lbf/in2 ´ 6.89

Cover factor – woven fabrics
(threads/cm) Ö (tex) ´ 10-1
(threads/cm) Ö (tex) ´ 10-2 = [(threads/in) /Ö (cotton count Ne)] ´ 0.0957

Cover factor – weft-knitted fabrics
Ö (tex) / stitch length (mm) = 1 / stitch length (in) ´ 1 / Ö (worsted count)] ´ 1.172

Diameter
d (mm) = Ö [denier / (r ´ 7068)]
d (mm) = Ö [denier / (r ´ 7068)] ´ 103
d (nm) = Ö [denier / (r ´ 7068)] ´ 106
d = 2 Ö (mass / rpl)
d (in) = (28ÖNe)-1
App. staple fiber yarn d = Ötex / 678.6

Diameter, Thickness, Length, Width
nm = in ´ 2.54 ´ 107
mm = in ´ 2.54 ´ 104
mm = in ´ 25.4
cm = in ´ 2.54
m = in ´ 0.0254
m = yd ´ 0.9144
1 km = .6214 miles

Energy, Work to Rupture
1 J = 0.1020 kgf.m
1 J = 0.7376 ft.lb
1 kgf.m = 9.807 J
1 kgf.m = 7.234 ft.lb
1 ft.lb = 1.356 J
1 ft.lb = 0.1383 kgf.m

Force
1 lbf = 4.448 N
1 kgf = 9.807 N
1 kgf = 2.2046 lbf
1 gf = 0.981 cN

Linear density
tex = denier ´ 0.111
tex = 590.5 / English cotton count Ne
tex = 1000 / Metric count Nm
mtex = denier ´ 11.1111
dtex = denier ´ 1.1111
dtex = tex ´ 10
dtex = 10000 / Nm
dtex = 5905 / Ne
dtex = 14,880,000 / ft/lb
ktex = denier ´ 111.1111
mtex = denier ´ 1.1111 ´ 105
den = dtex / 1.1111
Nm = 1.6933 ´ Ne
Nm = 10000 / dtex
Nm = 9000 / den

Mass
1 kg = 2.2046 lb
kg = lb ´ 0.4536
t = ton ´ 0.9842
1 oz = 28.35 g
mass = volume ´ density

Mass per Unit Area
g/m2 = oz/yd2 ´ 33.91

Modulus, pressure, tenacity
1 atm = 1.01325 bar
1 atm = 14.696 psi
1 atm = 1.0332 kg/cm2
1 atm = 0.133322 kpa

Breaking load, breaking force. breaking strength, tearing strength, tensile strength
mN = gf ´ 9.81
N = lbf ´ 4.45
daN = kgf ´ 0.981
N = kgf ´ 0.0981

Pressure, Stress
1 Pa = 1.45 ´ 10-4 psi
1 psi = 6895 Pa

Tenacity, Stress, Modulus, Toughness
mN/tex = gf/den ´ 88.3
cN/tex = g/den ´ 8.827
1 cN/tex = 1 mN/dtex
1 g/den = 8.827 cN/tex
tenacity = max tensile force / linear density
gpd = 11.33 / r GPa

Twist, Twist factor
TPM = TPI ´ 39.37
TPM Ö (tex) ´ 10-2 = [TPI /Ö (cotton count Ne)] ´ 9.57

Threads in cloth
Length: picks/cm = picks/in ´ 0.3937
Width, Warp threads in Loom: ends/cm = ends/in ´ 0.3937
courses/cm = courses/in ´ 0.3937
wales/cm = wales/in ´ 0.3937

Viscosity:  cP =  (100/RPM) * TK * SMC * Torque
1 mPa.s = 1 cP
Shear Stress dynes/cm2 :  TK * SMC * SRC * Torque
1 N/m2 = 10 dyne/cm2
Shear Rate: s-1 = RPM * SRC
Torque: 1 N-m = 107 dyne-cm

Volume
l = pint ´ 0.5682
l = gallon ´ 4.546
volume = mass / density
fiber volume = cross sectional area ´ length = pr2l

Definitions of the Seven Basic S I Units

metre [m]
The metre is the basic unit of length. It is the distance light travels, in a vacuum, in 1/299792458th of a second.
kilogram [kg]
The kilogram is the basic unit of mass. It is the mass of an international prototype in the form of a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at Sevres in France. It is now the only basic unit still defined in terms of a material object, and also the only one with a prefix[kilo] already in place.
second [s]
The second is the basic unit of time. It is the length of time taken for 9192631770 periods of vibration of the caesium-133 atom to occur.
ampere [A]
The ampere is the basic unit of electric current. It is that current which produces a specified force between two parallel wires which are 1 metre apart in a vacuum.It is named after the French physicist Andre Ampere (1775-1836).
kelvin [K]
The kelvin is the basic unit of temperature. It is 1/273.16th of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water. It is named after the Scottish mathematician and physicist William Thomson 1st Lord Kelvin (1824-1907).
mole [mol]
The mole is the basic unit of substance. It is the amount of substance that contains as many elementary units as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon-12.
candela [cd]
The candela is the basic unit of luminous intensity. It is the intensity of a source of light of a specified frequency, which gives a specified amount of power in a given direction.

Derived Units of the S I

From the 7 basic units of the S I many other units are derived for a variety of purposes. Only some of them are explained here. The units printed in bold are either basic units or else, in some cases, are themselves derived.
farad [F]
The farad is the SI unit of the capacitance of an electrical system, that is, its capacity to store electricity. It is a rather large unit as defined and is more often used as a microfarad. It is named after the English chemist and physicist Michael Faraday (1791-1867).
hertz [Hz]
The hertz is the SI unit of the frequency of a periodic phenomenon. One hertz indicates that 1 cycle of the phenomenon occurs every second. For most work much higher frequencies are needed such as the kiloherz [kHz] and megaherz [MHz]. It is named after the German physicist Heinrich Rudolph Herz (1857-94).
joule [J]
The joule is the SI unit of work or energy. One joule is the amount of work done when an applied force of 1 newton moves through a distance of 1 metre in the direction of the force.It is named after the English physicist James Prescott Joule (1818-89).
newton [N]
The newton is the SI unit of force. One newton is the force required to give a mass of 1 kilogram an acceleration of 1 metre per second per second. It is named after the English mathematician and physicist Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727).
ohm [W]
The ohm is the SI unit of resistance of an electrical conductor. Its symbol, shown here as [W] is the Greek letter known as 'omega'. It is named after the German physicist Georg Simon Ohm (1789-1854).
pascal [Pa]
The pascal is the SI unit of pressure. One pascal is the pressure generated by a force of 1 newton acting on an area of 1 square metre. It is a rather small unit as defined and is more often used as a kilopascal [kP]. It is named after the French mathematician, physicist and philosopher Blaise Pascal (1623-62).
volt [V]
The volt is the SI unit of electric potential. One volt is the difference of potential between two points of an electical conductor when a current of 1 ampere flowing between those points dissipates a power of 1 watt. It is named after the Italian physicist Count Alessandro Giuseppe Anastasio Volta (1745-1827).
watt [W]
The watt is used to measure power or the rate of doing work. One watt is a power of 1 joule per second. It is named after the Scottish engineer James Watt (1736-1819).
Note that prefixes may be used in conjunction with any of the above units.

The Prefixes of the S I

The S I allows the sizes of units to be made bigger or smaller by the use of appropriate prefixes. For example, the electrical unit of a watt is not a big unit even in terms of ordinary household use, so it is generally used in terms of 1000 watts at a time. The prefix for 1000 is kilo so we use kilowatts[kW] as our unit of measurement. For makers of electricity, or bigger users such as industry, it is common to use megawatts[MW] or even gigawatts[GW]. The full range of prefixes with their [symbols or abbreviations] and their multiplying factors which are also given in other forms is
                    yotta [Y] 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000                  = 1024
                    zetta [Z] 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000                           = 1021
                    exa   [E] 1 000 000 000 000 000 000                                   = 1018
                    peta  [P] 1 000 000 000 000 000                                           = 1015
                    tera  [T] 1 000 000 000 000                                                    = 1012          
                    giga  [G] 1 000 000 000                                          (a thousand millions = a billion)
                    mega  [M] 1 000 000                                              (a million)
                    kilo  [k] 1 000                                                           (a thousand)
                                           1
                    milli [m] 0.001                                                          (a thousandth)
                    micro [m] 0.000 001                                                 (a millionth)
                    nano  [n] 0.000 000 001                                         (a thousand millionth)
                    pico  [p] 0.000 000 000 001                                                    = 10-12
                    femto [f] 0.000 000 000 000 001                                          = 10-15
                    atto  [a] 0.000 000 000 000 000 001                                    = 10-18
                    zepto [z] 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 001                           = 10-21
                    yocto [y] 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001                  = 10-24
All of the S I prefixes are multiples or sub-multiples of 1000. However, these are inconvenient for many purposes and so hecta (x 100), deca (x 10), deci (x 0.1), and centi (x 0.01) are also used.
  



















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